Archive for the ‘Kelompok Soal-soal Structure’ Category

Bahasan Khusus tentang Kelompok Soal Structure

Bahasan Khusus tentang Kelompok Soal Structure

Karena buku ini menitikberatkan pada penguasaan tata bahasa (Structure), maka kelompok soal ini

akan di bahas secaralebih rinci agar dapat memberikan landasan yang lebih mantap kepada para

pemakainya dalam berlatih mengerjakan soal-soal dalam buku ini yang semuanya berjumlah 400 butir.

Kelompok soal Structure pada TOEFL biasa terdiri atas dua bentuk soal yaitu menyempurnakan

kalimat dan menunjukan bagian kalimat yang salah. Menurut Patricia Sullivan (1990: 152-168) urutan

frekuensi kemunculan bentuk soal Structure adalah sebagai berikut (berdasarkan penelitian pada 11

tes TOEFL):

 

a. Bagian melengkapi kalimat :

1. Peringkat pertama (paling tinggi frekuensinya) adalah penggunaan kata kerja (verb).

contohnya :

In 1776, when the Declaration of Independence …, the United States became a new country.

(A) Singed                                                      (C) Was signed

(B) That signed                                            (D) That it signed

Jawaban : C

2. Peringkat berikut nya adalah urutan kata (word order). Contohnya :

The union won benefits….

(A) themembers                                         (C) its members for

(B) for its members                                   (D) members for its

Jawaban : B

3. Pokok kalimat dan predikat (subject+verb) misalnya :

In 1970 B.C….the most collection of early laws.

(A) then Hammurabi wrote                   (C) Hammurabi’s wrote

(B) Hammurabi wrote                              (D) Hammurabi, who wrote

Jawaban : B

 

4. Kata yang mulai dengan “wb-” dan “bow”, tetapi tidak digunakan sebagai kata tanya. Contoh

soal : ….he got home last night is still a mystery to me.

(A) How                                                         (C) While

(B) Although                                                (D) Since

Jawaban : A

 

5. Frasa preposisi (preposotional phrase). Misalnya :

New York is a major center….

(A) at bank                                                    (C) of banking

(B) of bank                                                     (D) to banking

Jawaban : C

 

6. Struktur parallel (parallel construction). Misalnya :

Sleeping,resting,…. are the best ways to care for a cold.

(A) and that drinking fluids                    (C) which drank fluids

(B) and drinking fluids                              (D) and one drink fluids

Jawaban : B

 

7. Bentuk infinitive, grund, dan participle. Contoh soal :

Impressionist artists tended….imagination and light more important than faithful

reproduction of objects.

(A) considering                                           (C) consider to

(B) be consider                                            (D) to consider

Jawaban : D

 

8. Frasa adjektif dan adverb (adjective or adverb phrase). Misalnya :

A ray swims rapidly … broad wing like appendages.

(A) by flapping its                                       (C) of the flapping

(B) its flapping                                              (D) the palp

Jawawaban : A

 

9. Perbandingan (comparison). Contoh soal :

The greater…. increase in population, the harder it is for people to find adequate housing.

(A) of                                                              (C) the

(B) is the                                                        (D) is of the

Jawaban : C

 

10. Kata penghubung (conjunction). Contoh :

….animals can survive without oxygen.

(A) Plants can neither                              (C) Plants, neither

(B) Neither can plants                              (D) Neither plants

Jawaban : D

 

11. Kata dengan (preposition). Misalnya :

Excessive absenteeism result … problems for the schools.

(A) in                                                               (C) for

(B) with                                                           (D) to

Jawaban : A

 

12. Klausan adjektif atau klausa adverbia (adjective or adverb clause). Contoh :

…. left Europe in 1492, he was unaware of the changes that would accur as a result of his

voyage.

(A) From Columbus                                   (C) That Columbus was

(B) Because Columbus was                      (D) When Columbus

Jawaban : D

 

13. Peletakan kata kerja secara terbalik untuk menekankan makna (inverted verb for empbasis).

misalnya :

(A) that Americans walk                          (C) when did Americans walk

(B) did Americans walk                            (D) when Americans walk

Jawaban : B

 

14. Frasa Subjek atau kata benda (subject/noun phrase). Misalnya :

….AIDS has engaged may researches in the last decade.

(A) By studying                                           (C) Important study

(B) The study of                                          (D) Now that the study

Jawaban : B

 

15. Penggunaan kata “there”. Misalnya :

… during past centuries when people habe come to the west seeking gold

(A) Times                                                       (C) There have been times

(B) Throughout times                               (D) Times have been

Jawaban : C

 

16. Tingkat paling (superlative). Contohnya:

Of all the national parks in the United States, Yellowstone is….visited.

(A) one of the most                                  (C) one most

(B) of the most                                           (D) the most one

Jawaban : A

 

17. Sebab akibat (cause and result). Misalnya :

Radio communication has changed…. the rapid development of other cmmunication media, such

as tekevision.

(A) because its                                            (C) because of

(B) is it because                                          (D) is because its

Jawaban : C

 

18. Tujuan dan alasan (purpose and reason). Misalnya :

The day was… that people swarmed to the beach.

(A) such  hot                                               (C) very hot

(B) so hot                                                      (D) hot

Jawaban : B

 

19. Kata sifat (adjective). Contoh soal :

….felt hat is one of the symbols of a cowboy.

(A) A broad-brimmed                              (C) The brimm which is broad

(B) Broad                                                       (D) Broad brim

Jawaban : B

 

20. Kalimat pengandaian (condional andcontrary tofact). Contoh :

…. the ozone layer were destroyed, most living things would disappear from the Earth

in a few years.

(A) Besides                                                   (C) So

(B) If                                                                (D) For

Jawaban : B

 

21. Kata “like” dan “unlike”. Contoh soal :

…. publich schools, private schools charge tuition.

(A) Do not like                                             (C) Dislike

(B) No likeness to                                       (D) Unlike

Jawaban : D

 

22. kata “no”,”not”, dan “none”. Misalnya :

…two fingerprints are identical.

(A) Nor                                                           (C) No

(B) none                                                         (D) Not

Jawaban : C

 

23. Kata ganti tak tentu (indefinite pronoun). Misalnya :

Silver nitrate dyes…it touches black.

(A) somehow                                              (C) them

(B) there                                                       (D) everything

Jawaban : D

 

24. Benda yang dapat di hitung dan tak dapat dihitung (countable and non-countable). Misalnya :

….of buying and selling occurs internationally.

(A) A great deal                                          (C) Much greater

(B) A great many                                        (D) Many

Jawaban : A

 

b. Menunjukkan bagian yang salah dalam kalimat (error identification) :

1. Peringkat tebanyak adalah tentang bentukkata atau word form. Misalnya :

The season changes of weather cause color changes  in the leaves of deciduous trees.

A                                                      B                                                     C                    D

Jawaban (bagian yang salah): A, seharusnya adalah “seasonal”.

 

2. Peringkat ke dua adalahstruktur parallel (parallel construction). Misalnya :

Victims of migraines are often unable tolarate ordinary sights, sound, odors and press

A                                                B                                           C                                                                D

Jawaban : D, seharusnya adalah “pressure”

 

3. Peringkat berikutnya adalah bentuk waktu kata kerja (verb tense). Misalnya :

No one was sure how many Americans suffer from chronic fague syndrome.

A                 B                       C                                                             D

Jawaban : B, seharusnya adalah “is sure”

 

4. Bentuk tunggal dan jamak (singular an plurarnoun). Misalnya :

Science and technology are part of the knowledges of educated people.

A                           B            C                                   D

Jawaban : D, mestinya “knowledge” tanpa “s”

 

5. Kata depan (preposition). Misalnya :

Some poeple believe that humans will never use away all the natural resource of earth

A                                         B              C                D

Jawaban : C, mestinya “use up”

 

6. Salah menggunakan kata (wrong word). Misalnya :

some artists like their art to be shown in apart museum.

A      B                C                           D

Jawaban : D, mestinya “separate”

 

7. Penambahan kata yang tak perlu (additional word). Misalnya :

The invention of Alexander Graham Bell extremely greatly extended the limits of comunication

A                                                                         B                                                      C                        D

Jawaban : B, hilangkan kata “extremely”

 

8. Kurang kata (omission of word). Misalnya :

A delicious mixture called a smoothie si a blend several  different foods such as milk,

A                                                                         B                       C                                D

bananas and vanila

Jawaban : B, mestinya “blend os several”

 

9. Susun kata terbalik (word reversal). Misalnya:

The Medal of National Science is the highest  award scientific that can be given to any

A                        B                                    C

individual in the United States.

D

 

Jawaban : B . mestinya ” scientific award”

 

10. Kata sandang (article). Misalnya :

A milk can provide protein for a cheap, nutritionally balanced diet

A                  B                                          C                               D

 

Jawaban : A, hilangkan kata sandang “a”

 

11. Kata ganti (pronoun). Misalnya :

Scientists say that the color of the lake is a result of his unusual algae

A      B                                                     C                 D

 

Jawaban : D, seharusnya “its”

 

12. Kata penghubung (conjunction). Misalnya :

Three condition critical for growing plant are soil temperature, chemical balance or amount of moisture

A                B                                                                                                          C        D

Jawaban : C, seharus nya “and”.

 

13. Kesesuaian subjek-predikat (verb agreement). Misalnya :

A technical view of a new invention sometimes differ from an economic perspective.

A                                                                                       B                  C                                D

 

Jawaban : B, seharusnya “differ”

 

14. Tingkat perbandingan (comparative). Misalnya :

Engines used in space shuttles are much larger and more strong than the ones used injet planes

A                                                      B                                     C                             D

 

Jawaban : C, seharusnya “stronger”

 

15. Bentuk kata kerja infinitive dan gerund. Misalnya :

when there are low sales, companies often decide developing new products.

A                            B                                                                          C                              D

 

Jawaban : C, seharusnya “to develop”

 

16. Penggunaan kata-kata “so”, “such” atau “so…that” Misalnya :

Elephants have so long flexible trunks that they seem clumsy as they walk

A                                         B                                C        D

 

Jawaban : A, seharus nya “such long”

 

17. Klausa adjektif dan klausa adverbia yang mulai dengan “wb-”(adjective and adverb clause

beginning with “wb-”). Misalnya :

Many people which know the Missouri River well doubt that it can ever really be tamed.

A                                                                         B        C                                               D

Jawaban : A, seharusnya “who”

 

18. Penggunaan “other” dan “another”. Misalnya :

Unlike another schools, fremont High School has a room and board program to provide

A                                                                                            B                                                    C

assistance for out-of-town students

D

Jawaban : A, seharusnya “other”

 

19. Kata-kata “like”,”unlike” atau “alike”. Misalnya :

Garlic smells somewhat alike onion and is a flavorful ingredient used in many dishes

A              B                                        C                                                                  D

 

Jawaban : B, seharusnya “like”

 

20. Bentuk paling (superlative). Misalnya :

Many people believe that New York is the most great city in the united States

A                                                                         B               C                  D

Jawaban : C, seharusnya “greatest”

 

21. Struktur pasif (passive voice). Misalnya :

New laws should be writing to accommodate changes in our society.

A                         B                                     C    D

Jawaban : A, seharusnya “be written”

 

22. Tentang kata-kata “no”,”not”, atau “none”. Misalnya :

With reforestration now, there are young forests where no long ago the land was gullied

A                           B           C                                    D

and bare.

 

Jawaban : C, seharusnya “not long”

 

23. Penggunaan kata “many” dan “much”. Misalnya :

Of the billions of stars in the galaxy, how much are suitable for life?

A                                                            B                           C             D

 

Jawaban : D, seharus nya “for”

 

24. Kata depan “since” dan “for”. Misalnya :

Victor served as president of the school club since fifteen years.

A      B                        C                                      D

 

Jawaban : D, seharusnya “for”

 

25. Penggunaan kata-kata “each”,”every”,atau “all”. Misalnya :

The majestic Rocky Mountains stretch each the way from Mexico to the Arctic

A                                                    B           C                          D

 

Jawaban : C, seharusnya “all”

 

26. Kata ” these” dan “those”. Misalnya :

In those days of frequent air trafelm diseases can spread around the world in a very short time.

A                            B                                                                C                                                                  D

 

Jawaban : A, seharusnya “these”.

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