The listening section tests your ability to understand spoken English that is typicalof interactions and academic speech on collegecampuses. During the test, you will respond to conversation andlectures.
Choose the best answer to multiple-choice question. Follow the directions on the page or on the screen for computer-assited question. You cannot return to previous questions. You have 20-30 minutes to answer all of the questions. A clock on the screen will show you how much time you have to complete your answers for the section.
A. Conversation : “Students on campus”
Narator : Listen to part of a conversation on campus between two students.
Man : I wish I were as sure about my future as you seem to be but I really don’t know what I
wanto to do after I graduate.
Woman : Well, have you talked with a counselor over at the Office of Career Development ?
Man : No… I’ve talked to my academic advisor, though.
Woman : That’s good, but it’sreally better to see someone who specializes in helping people make career decisions. You see, an academic advisor is there tohelp you workout your academic program. You know, figure out what your major is going to be and which courses to take and all that. But a career counselor has a lot of experience and resources to help you decide what you want to do in the work world.
Man : Did you see a career counselor ?
Woman : I sure did. Lastsemester. I was .. well, I don’t even know what I would be good at, for a career, I mean. So I made an appointment at the office of Career Development, and I talked with a counselor.
Man : Doyou remember who it was ?
Woman : Sure. It was Ruth Jackson.
Man : Oh, but since I’m interested in careersfor math majors, probably I should see someone else.
Woman : Not really. Any of the counselors can help you. Look, I some aptitude tests and something called a career inventory. Anyway, I took several tests, and then the counselor gave me some ideas about different careers. I even went to some group sessions with some other students for a weeks. Mrs Jackson was the group leader, so um, that’s how I met her, and then I just sort of naturally started making my appointments with her when I needed some advice.
Man : It sounds like it took a lot of time. I’m so busy already.
Woman : Well, it did take time. Probably three hours for the tests, and I think I went to maybe four group sessions, and then I saw Ruth a couple of times. I guess about nine or ten hours probably. But it was worth it.
Man : So,is that why you decided to go into library science ?Because of the test and everything ?
Woman : In part. But, mostly it was because of the internship. You see, I also got my internship through the office of career development. And when I was working as an intern in the public library, it all sort of came together for me. I really liked what I was doing and realized that I didn’t want the internship to end.
Man : And you get paid for working there in the library to, don’t you ?
Woman : I get paid, and I get credit toward my degree. But even better, I have a job offer from the library where I’m doing my internship.
Man : Wow! Are you going to take it ?
Woman : I think so. Have to let them know next week. If I do take the job, I’ll have to go graduate school to get a degree in library science, but I can do that part-time while I’m working, and I had thought about graduate school anyway. So, I’m leaning toward taking the job.
Man : That’s great, Anne. I’m glad for you. So,uh, I guess I’d better make an appointment with Ruth Jackson. Maybe she can find me an internship.
Woman : Maybe.
- What are students mainly discussing ?
(A) Group session in the Office of Career Development
(B) The advantages of career counseling for the man
(C) The woman’s internship in the Office of Career Development
(D) How to find employment in the field of career counseling
- What is the man’s problem ?
(A) He does not have time to see an advisor
(B) He does not have an internship yet
(C) He does not know which career to choose
(D) He does not have a job offer graduation
- Why does the woman tell the man about her experience ?
(A) To demonstrate the benefitsof going to the Office of Career Development
(B) To encouragethe man to talk with an advisor about an internship
(C) To suggest that he change his major from math to library science
(D) Togive the man her opinion about hiscareer decision
- What is the woman’s attitude toward her internship ?
(A) She would rather go to graduate school
(B) She is looking toward to interning
(C) She thinks that it is very positive experince
(D) She will be happy when she completes it
- What will theman probably do ?
(A) He will make aan appointment withhis academic advisor
(B) He will go to theOffice of Career Development
(C) He will apply for a job at the library
(D) He will ask the woman to help him with his tests
- Audio Lecture : “ Anyhropology Class”
Narrator : Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology class.
Professor : The concepts of power and authority are related, but they’re not the same. Power is the abilyty to exercise influence… and control over others. And this can be observed on every level of society, from, well.. the relationships within a family to the relationhips among nations. Power is usually structured by customs and …social institutions or laws and tends to be exerted by persuasive arguments or coercion or .. or even brute force. In general, groups with the greatest, uh, resources tend to have the advantage in power struggles. So, is power always legitimate ? Is it viewed by members of society as justified ? Well, no. Power can be realized by individuals or groups.. even when it involves the resistance of others, if.. as long as… as long as they’re in position to impose their will. But what about power that is accepted by members of society as right and just, that is, legimate power ? Now we’re talking about authority. And that’swhat I want to focus on today.
Okay. When individuals or institutions possess authority, they have,um, a recognized and established right… to determine polices, with the accpetance of those over… over whom they execise control. Max Weber, the German classical sociologist,proposed three types of authority in society : traditional, charismatic, and rational or legal authority. In all three types, he , uh, he acknowledged the right of those in positions of power to lead… with the consent of the governed. So, how did weber differentiate among the three tyes ofauthority ? Well, he divided them according to how the right to lead and the duty to follow are, uh, interpreted. In traditional authority,power resides in customs and conventions that provide certain people or groups with legimate power in their societies. Often their origin is found in sacred traditions. The example that most often comes tomind is a monarcy in which kings or queens rule.. by… bybirthright, not because of any particular… quality of leadership or political election, just because they have a claim to authority, based on traditional acceptance of their position, and in some cases, their,uh, unique relationship with and, uh, responsibility in religious practices. The royal families in Europe or the emperors in Asia are.. come to mind as examples of traditional authority. Okay. Thiscontrasts sharplyy with charismatic authority which is..um… derived.. because of personal attributes that inspire admiration, loyalty… and even devotion. Leaders who exercise this type of authorty may be the foundersof religious movements orpolitical parties, but it’s not their traditional right to lead. What’s important here is that their folowers are mobilized more by… uh, by the force of the leader’s personality than by the tradition orthe law. So when we think of charismatic leaders in the United States, perhaps John Kennedy would be an example because he was able to project a youthful and energetic image that people were proud to identify with, or, if you prefer Republicans, you may argue that Ronald Reagan was able to exercise authority by virtue of his charismatic appeal. In any case, going back to Weber, to quality for charismatic authority, a leader must be able to enlist others in the service of a … a cause that transforms the social structure in some way.
Which leaves us with legal rational authority, or power that is legitimized by rules, uh, laws, and procedures. In such a system, leaders gain authority not by traditional birthrights or by charismatic appeal but… but rather because they’re elected or appointed in accordance with the law, and power is delegated to layers officials who owe their allegiance to the , uh, principles that are agreed upon rationally, and because they accept the ideal that the law is supreme. In a legal rational society, people accept thelegitimacy of authority as a government of laws, not of leaders. So, an example ofthis type of authoruty might be a president, like Richard Nixon, who was threatened with , uh, impeachment because he wasperceived as not foverning within the law.
Some sociologists have postulated that the three types of authority represent stages of evolution in society. That pre-industrial societies tend to respect traditional authority, but, uh, as societies move into an industrial age, the importance of tradition… wanes…in favor of charismatic authority, with a natural rise of charismatic leaders. Then, as… as the modern era evolves, the rational legal authority, embodied by rules and regulations repalces the loyalty to leaders in favor of … a respect law. Of course,other sociologists argue that in practice, authority may be represented by a combination of several of these ideal types at any one time.
- What is the main purpose of this lecture ?
(A) To discuss three types of authority
(B) To distinguish between power an authority
(C) Toexamine alternatives to wever’s model
(D) To argue in favor of a legal rational system
- Why does the professor mention Kennedy abd Reagan ?
(A) They were founders of political movements
(B) They were examples of charismatic leaders
(C) They were attorneys who led by the law
(D) They had contrasting types of authority
- According to the professor, what two factors are associated with charismatic authority ?
Click on 2 answer choices.
(A) Sacred customs
(B) An attractive leader
(C) A social cause
(D) Legal elections
- Listen againto part of the lecture and the answer the following question.
Replay : “ But what about power that is accepted by members ofsociety as right and just, that is, legitimate power ? Now we’re talking about authority. And that’s what I want to focus on today.”
Audio : Why does the professor saythis ?
Replay : “ But what about power that is accepted by members of society as right and just, that is, legiminate power ?”
(A) She is asking the students to answer a question
(B) She is introducing the topic of the lecture
(C) She is expressing an opinion about the subject
(D) She is reminding students of a previous point
- In an evolutionary model, how is rational legal authority viewed ?
(A) The most modern form of authority
(B) A common type of authority in the industrial age
(C) Authority used by traditional leaders
(D) A relacement for the three ideal types of authority
- What does the professorimply about the three types of authority ?
(A) There is only one legitimate type of authority in modern societies
(B) Sociologists do not agree about the development of the types of authority
(C) Societies tend to select and retainone type of authority indefinitely
(D) Weber’s model explains why the social structure rejects power over time.
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