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2.Listening Section


The listening section tests your ability to understand spoken English that is typicalof interactions and academic speech on collegecampuses. During the test, you will respond to conversation andlectures.

Choose the best answer to multiple-choice question. Follow the directions on the page or on the screen for computer-assited question. You cannot return to previous questions. You have 20-30 minutes to answer all of the questions. A clock on the screen will show you how much time you have to complete your answers for the section.

A. Conversation :  “Students on campus”

Audio Conversation

Narator                : Listen to part of a conversation on campus between two students.

Man                       : I wish I were as sure about my future as you seem to be but I really don’t know what I

wanto to do after I graduate.

Woman                : Well, have you talked with a counselor over at the Office of Career Development ?

Man                       : No… I’ve talked to my academic advisor, though.

Woman                : That’s good, but it’sreally better to see someone who specializes in helping people make career decisions. You see, an                                       academic advisor is there tohelp you workout your  academic program. You know, figure out what your major is going                                   to be and which courses to take and all that. But a career counselor has a lot of experience and resources to help you                                         decide what you want to do in the work world.

Man                       : Did you see a career counselor ?

Woman                : I sure did. Lastsemester. I was .. well, I don’t even know what I would be good at, for a career, I mean. So I made an                                           appointment at the office of Career Development, and I talked with a counselor.

Man                       : Doyou remember who it was ?

Woman                : Sure. It was Ruth Jackson.

Man                       : Oh, but since I’m interested in careersfor math majors, probably I should see someone                                else.

Woman                : Not really. Any of the counselors can help you. Look, I some aptitude tests and something called a career inventory.                                         Anyway, I took several tests, and then the counselor gave me some ideas about different careers. I even went to some                                     group sessions with some other students for a weeks. Mrs Jackson was the group leader, so um, that’s how I met her,                                         and then I just sort of naturally started making my appointments with her when I needed some advice.

Man                       : It sounds like it took a lot of time. I’m so busy already.

Woman                : Well, it did take time. Probably three hours for the tests, and I think I went to maybe                     four group sessions, and then I saw Ruth a couple of times. I guess about nine or ten                       hours probably. But it was worth it.

Man                       : So,is that why you decided to go into library science ?Because of the test and                                    everything ?

Woman                : In part. But, mostly it was because of the internship. You see, I also got my internship                    through the office of career development. And when I was working as an intern in the                     public library, it all sort of came together for me. I really liked what I was doing and                               realized that I didn’t want the internship to end.

Man                       : And you get paid for working there in the library to, don’t you ?

Woman                                : I get paid, and I get credit toward my degree. But even better, I have a job offer from                                   the library where I’m doing my internship.

Man                       : Wow! Are you going to take it ?

Woman                                : I think so. Have to let them know next week. If I do take the job, I’ll have to go                                                 graduate school to get a degree in library science, but I can do that part-time while I’m                                  working, and I had thought about graduate school anyway. So, I’m leaning toward                             taking the job.

Man                       : That’s great, Anne. I’m glad for you. So,uh, I guess I’d better make an appointment                        with Ruth Jackson. Maybe she can find me an internship.

Woman                                : Maybe.

  1. What are students mainly discussing ?

(A)   Group session in the Office of Career Development

(B)   The advantages of career counseling for the man

(C)   The woman’s internship in the Office of Career Development

(D)   How to find employment in the field of career counseling

  1. What is the man’s problem ?

(A)   He does not have time to see an advisor

(B)   He does not have an internship yet

(C)   He does not know which career to choose

(D)   He does not have a job offer graduation

  1. Why does the woman tell the man about her experience ?

(A)   To demonstrate the benefitsof going to the Office of Career Development

(B)   To encouragethe man to talk with an advisor about an internship

(C)   To suggest that he change his major from math to library science

(D)   Togive the man her opinion about hiscareer decision

  1. What is the woman’s attitude toward her internship ?

(A)   She would rather go to graduate school

(B)   She is looking toward to interning

(C)   She thinks that it is very positive experince

(D)   She will be happy when she completes it

  1. What will theman probably do ?

(A)   He will make aan appointment withhis academic advisor

(B)   He will go to theOffice of Career Development

(C)   He will apply for a job at the library

(D)   He will ask the woman to help him with his tests

  1. Audio Lecture : “ Anyhropology Class”

Narrator               : Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology class.

Professor : The concepts of power and authority are related, but they’re not the same. Power is the abilyty to exercise influence… and control over others. And this can be observed on every level of society, from, well.. the relationships within a family to the relationhips among nations. Power is usually structured by customs and …social institutions or laws and tends to be exerted by persuasive arguments or coercion or .. or even brute force. In general, groups with the greatest, uh, resources tend to have the advantage in power struggles. So, is power always legitimate ? Is it viewed by members of society as justified ? Well, no. Power can be realized by individuals or groups.. even when it involves the resistance of others, if.. as long as… as long as they’re in position to impose their will. But what about power that is accepted by members of society as right and just, that is, legimate power ? Now we’re talking about authority. And that’swhat I want to focus on today.

Okay. When individuals or institutions possess authority, they have,um, a   recognized and established right… to determine polices, with the accpetance of those over… over whom they execise control. Max Weber, the German classical sociologist,proposed three types of authority in society : traditional, charismatic, and rational or legal authority. In all three types, he , uh, he acknowledged the right of those in positions of power to lead… with the consent of the governed. So, how did weber differentiate among the three tyes ofauthority ? Well, he divided them according to how the right to lead and the duty to follow are, uh, interpreted. In traditional authority,power resides in customs and conventions that provide certain people or groups with legimate power in their societies. Often their origin is found in sacred traditions. The example that most often comes tomind is a monarcy in which kings or queens rule.. by… bybirthright, not because of any particular… quality of leadership or political election, just because they have a claim to authority, based on traditional acceptance of their position, and in some cases, their,uh, unique relationship with and, uh, responsibility in religious practices. The royal families in Europe or the emperors in Asia are.. come to mind as examples of traditional authority. Okay. Thiscontrasts sharplyy with charismatic authority which… derived.. because of personal attributes that inspire admiration, loyalty… and even devotion. Leaders who exercise this type of authorty may be the foundersof religious movements orpolitical parties, but it’s not their traditional right to lead. What’s important here is that their folowers are mobilized more by… uh, by the force of the leader’s personality than by the tradition orthe law. So when we think of charismatic leaders in the United States, perhaps John Kennedy would be an example because he was able to project a youthful and energetic  image that people were proud to identify with, or, if you prefer Republicans, you may argue that Ronald Reagan was able to exercise authority by virtue of his charismatic appeal. In any case, going back to Weber, to quality for charismatic authority, a leader must be able to enlist others in the service of a … a cause that transforms the social structure in some way.

Which leaves us with legal rational authority, or power that is legitimized by rules, uh, laws, and procedures. In such a system, leaders  gain authority not by traditional birthrights or by charismatic appeal but… but rather because they’re elected or appointed in accordance with the law, and power is delegated to layers officials who owe their allegiance to the , uh, principles that are agreed upon rationally, and because they accept the ideal that the law is supreme. In a legal rational society, people accept thelegitimacy of authority as a government of laws, not of leaders. So, an example ofthis type of authoruty might be a president, like Richard Nixon, who was threatened with , uh, impeachment because he wasperceived as not foverning within the law.

Some sociologists  have postulated that the three types of authority represent stages of evolution in society. That pre-industrial societies tend to respect traditional authority, but, uh, as societies move into an industrial age, the importance of tradition… wanes…in favor  of charismatic authority, with a natural rise of charismatic leaders.  Then, as… as the modern era evolves, the rational legal authority, embodied by rules and regulations repalces the loyalty to leaders in favor of … a respect law. Of course,other sociologists argue that in practice, authority may be represented by a combination of several of these ideal types at any one time.

  1. What is the main purpose of this lecture ?

(A)   To discuss three types of authority

(B)   To distinguish between power an authority

(C)   Toexamine alternatives to wever’s model

(D)   To argue in favor of a legal rational system

  1. Why does the professor mention Kennedy abd Reagan ?

(A)   They were founders of political movements

(B)   They were examples of charismatic leaders

(C)   They were attorneys who led by the law

(D)   They had contrasting types of authority

  1. According to the professor, what two factors are associated with charismatic authority ?

Click on 2 answer choices.

(A)   Sacred customs

(B)   An attractive leader

(C)   A social cause

(D)   Legal elections

  1. Listen againto part of the lecture and the answer the following question.

Replay  : “ But what about power that is accepted  by members ofsociety as right and just, that                                   is, legitimate power ? Now we’re talking about authority. And that’s what I want to                                focus on today.”

Audio    : Why does the professor saythis ?

Replay  : “ But what about power that is accepted by members of society as right and just, that                                   is, legiminate power ?”

(A)   She is asking the students to answer a question

(B)   She is introducing the topic of the lecture

(C)   She is expressing an opinion about the subject

(D)   She is reminding students of a previous point

  1. In an evolutionary model, how is rational legal authority viewed ?

(A)   The most modern form of authority

(B)   A common type of authority in the industrial age

(C)   Authority used by traditional leaders

(D)   A relacement for the three ideal types of authority

  1. What does the professorimply about the three types of authority ?

(A)   There is only one legitimate type of authority in modern societies

(B)   Sociologists do not agree about the development of the types of authority

(C)   Societies tend to select and retainone type of authority indefinitely

(D)   Weber’s model explains why the social structure rejects power over time.

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Section 3. Reading

In the Reading Section, you will first have the opportunty to read the passage. You will use the scroll bar to view the rest of the passage. When you have finished reading the passage, you will use the “mouse” to click on Proceed. Then the questions about the passage will be represented. You are to choose the one best answer to each question. Answer all question about the information in a passage on the basis what is stated or implied in that passage.

Most of the questions will be multiple-choice questions. To answer these quesstions you will click on a choice below the question. To answer some questions, you will click on a word or a sentence in the passage, or you will click on a square to add a sentence to the passage.

Although its purpose and techniques were often magical, alchemy was, in many ways, the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry. The fundamental premise of alchemy derived from the best philosophical dogma and scientific pratice of the time, and in the majority of educated persons between 1400 and 1600 believed that alchemy had great merit.

The earliest authentic works on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher St. Albertus Magnus. In their treatises, they maintained that gold ws the perfect metal and that inferior metals such as lead and mercury were removed by various degrees of imperfection from gold. They further asserted that these base metals could be transmuted to gold by blending them with a subtance more perfect than gold. This elusive subtance was referred to as the “philosopher’s stone”. The process was called  transmutation.

Most of the early alchemists were artisans who were accustomed to keeping trade secrets and often resorted to cryptic terminology to record the progress of their work. The term “sun” was used for fold, “moon” for silver, and the five known planets for base metals. This convention of subtituting symbolic language attracted some mystical philosophers who compared the search for the perfect metal with the struggle of humankind for the perfection of the soul. The philosopher began to use the artisan’s terms in the mystical literature that they produced. Thus, by  the 14th century, alchemyhad developed two distinct groups of practitioners. Both groups of alchemists continued to work throughout the history of alchemy, but, of course, it was the literary alchemists  who was more likely to produce a written record; therefore, muc of what is known about the science of alchemists who labored in laboratories.

1.  Which of the following is the main point of the passage ?

(A)   There were both laboratory and literary alchemists

(B)   Base metal can be transmuted to gold by blending them with a subtance more prefect than gold.

(C)   Roger Bacon and St. Albertus Magnus wrote about alchemy

(D)   Alchemy was the prodecessor of modern chemistry.

2.  The word authentic in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by…

(A)   Valuable

(B)   Genuine

(C)   Complete

(D)   Comprehensible

3.  Look at the word those in paragraph 2. Click on the word or phrase in the paragraph that refers to those.

4.  According to the alchemists, what is the difference between base metals and gold ?

(A)   Perfection

(B)   Chemical content

(C)   Temperature

(D)   Weight

5.  Look at the word asserted in paragraph 2. Click on the word  or phrase in the paragraph that is closest in meaning to asserted.

6.  According to the passage, what is the “philosopher’s stone” ?

(A)   Lead that was mixed with gold

(B)   An element that was never found

(C)   Another name for alchemy

(D)   A base Metal

7.  The word cryptic in paragraph 3 could be replaced by which of the following ?

(A)   Sholarly

(B)   Secret

(C)   Foreign

(D)   Precise

8.  Why did the early alchemists use terms “sun” and “moon” ?

(A)   To keep the work secret

(B)   To make the work more literary

(C)   To attact philophers

(D)   To produce a written record

9.  Who were the firs alchemists ?

(A)   Chemists

(B)   Writers

(C)   Artisans

(D)   Linguists

10. In Oaragraph 3, the author suggest that we know about the history of alchemy because …

(A)   The laboratory alchemists kept secrect notes.

(B)   The literary alchemists recorded itin writing

(C)   The mystical philosophers were not able to hide the alchemists.

(D)    The historians were able to interpret thesecre writings of the alchemists

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Audio Lecture

Narrator               : Listen to part of a lecture on Geology.

Fossils are the remains of orgnisms that have been preserved. Some of the most common fossils are shells, skeletons, leaves, and insects. They are occasionally preserved in ice, but most have been burried in mud or sand that collects at the bottom of bodies of water, especially lakes, swamps, and oceans. In order for fossils to form, the animals and plants must be buried quickly; otherwise, theorganism will disintegrate. If they are buried in loose sediment, the soft tissues will begin to decay. But the harder structures such as bones and shells will remain intact for much longer. After years of pressure from the layers of sedment above them, the lower layers of sediment turn into rock, encapsulating the organisms.

There are several different mineral processes that continue the fossilization of oranisms in the sedimentary rocks. A few plants and animals become fossilized after mineral-rich water soaks into the pores an openings in the hard tissues of the plant or animal. In these fossils, theoriginal body of the organism is strengthened by the infusion of mineral deposits, and every detail of the organism is preserved. But in most fossils, the minerals in the water dissolve the original organism, leaving a fossil mold. Minerals continue to be deposited in the mold at the same time, a process that results in the replacement of the same shape. In the casts of these molds, the internal features of the organism are not preserved, but the outer structure is accurate in every detail. Sometimes the fine shapes of even very fragile feathers and for are preserved by mineral replacement.

Although the fossil record is incomplete, the composite of fossil findings chronicles the form of life that existed at various periods in the past. In a sense, the fossil record is a history of life. The location of fossil in layers of undisturbed sedimentary rock shows not only which groups of organisms lived at approximately  the same time but also indicates the order in which they were buried, that is, their relative ages. Plants and animals on the lower layers are presumed to be older than those buried after then in the layers above.

1.  What are the two most common place where fossils may be found?

(Click on 2 answers)

(A)   Ice

(B)   Mud

(C)   Sand

(D)   Water

2.  The professor briefly explains a process. Summarize the process by putting the events in order.

(click on a sentence. Then click on the space where it belongs. Use each sentence only once)

(A)   Mold of the organism preserved the shape of the organism

(B)   Water soaks into the organism

(C)   Organisms are buried in mud or sand

(D)   Minerals in the water dissolve the original organism.

3.  What is lost in the process of replacement ?

(A)   The fine shapes of fragile structures

(B)   The internal features of the plant or animal

(C)   The mineralsin the deposit

(D)   The original fossil mold

4.  Why are the layers of sedimentary rock important to the fossils record ?

(A)   The ages of the fossils may be determined by their location in the layers of rock

(B)   The shapes of the fossils may be preserved in the layers of rock

(C)   The rock protects the fossils from the mineral water that dissolves them

(D)   Plants and animals that are formed at the same time are buried in different layers of rock.

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